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Perhaps the following diverse examples, which can be found on imslp.org, might be helpful.
Josephine Lang, 6 Lieder, op. 25 no. 5
Fanny Hensel, 6 Lieder, op. 1 no. 3
John Philip Sousa, Semper Fidelis (for the bandos)
Chopin used col legno in the kujawiak-finale of his Piano Concerto No. 2 (1829/1830), which was performed in Warsaw privately in February 1830 and publicly in March 1830. Symphonie Fantastique also dates from 1830, but I'm not sure which months. So …
I'm not sure if the following two articles would be appropriate because I merely skimmed them after a google search, but many of Witold Lutoslawski's pieces contain sophisticated rhythmic structures.